The history of Holy assumption monastery
Honestly, when I started to write this Chapter ,we did not assume HOW much conflicting evidence there is on this topic.
It is well known that many times in history rewritten in favor of those in power.
And apparently all so messed up in the result that the current historians who in what is presented to us sometimes diametrically opposed versions of the same events.
Shoveled a fair amount of material, I decided not to stick to one of them, and outline everything. Giving it to you to decide, where the truth and fiction as possible.
However, everything in order
When organized in the Crimea, the Kingdom of the Tatars who came here, became independent from the Ottoman Empire, received the device and put on the throne the dynasty of khans, known under the name of Hera; (the founder of this dynasty, was Hadji Devlet Giray (from 1451 — 1467 gg.)
To this dynasty, the Tatars were a Horde without a proper political organization, in which nomadic elements were in full force.
The power of the new dynasty of the Tartars are obliged personal qualities smart, gentle, and TOLERANT Hadzhi-Devlet, sabodisho peaceful industrial relations with the Genoese and other States.
With fierce and cunning his son Mengli-Here, Tatars and penetrate to the South coast. When in the end of XV century the Crimea takes on the character of the country purely Tatar.
The capital of the Tatars with Mengli-Here is Bakhchisarai, which became together and the center of Tatar civilization.
Next to the development of the political life of the Tatars developed their religion.
First, they, during the nomadic state, professed the religion which they professed God under the form of fire.
Not having challenging the tenets of this religion characterized by religious tolerance.
And the barbarism of the Tatars was not due to religious motives: it was an ordinary cruelty of the wild people over cont.itelem.
The religion of the Tatars professed to half of the XIII century;
This time between starts of Mohammedanism. But the new religion at this time — not national; that it is done in the first quarter of the XIV century.
But becoming the national religion, Islam was assimilated by Tatars only to external parties.
They played only the external rites of Islam, without knowing or realizing it with the dogmatic side.
Intelligent and devout, Devlet Giray, did a lot to study a new religion. He traveled to the grave of Mohammed, for which he named Hadji, i.e. pilgrim.
But the most important influence on the final development of Islam among the Tatars made the fall of Constantinople and the triumph of Islam over Christianity.
Simultaneously with the Foundation of the Crimean Khanate, near the fortress Kyrk-or was founded in the middle ages, the famous ORTHODOX monastery of the assumption.
At first clashes with Islam, with half of the XIII century to the XV century, Christianity was reduced, first, because the Tartars, yet are not hard themselves to Islam, not persecuted religion of the Christians;
second, because Christians, strong in faith, with patience endured the persecution of religion.
At the end of the XV century the Genoese are removed from the Crimea, and Christianity loses up to 50 thousand of his followers, and together guardians.
After the Genoese, the Tartars begins to persecute Christianity, but their success in the spread of Islam among Christians is too insignificant firm in the faith Christians with self denial fall under the blows of the persecutors.
All the government officials to bypass the villages stayed with all his staff commonly have priests, whose duties were not only to feed and satisfy all the whims of the guests, but also to pay them for the privilege of visiting under the title "Tisch of parasi", i.e. the money for the action of the teeth.
This is a fee for that important guests bother your noble teeth for food in the house, which they had attended.
The priests, Willy-nilly taking on such burdens, served as a mockery and fun for the Tatar authorities received a beating not only from them, but even from slaves, had insulted their wives and daughters — but it had to endure with Christian patience.
The persecution of Christianity always act negatively to the success of Islam.
This is evident not only in the persecution of the Crimean Christians, but also in other countries.
A severe blow was dealt to Christianity Tatar civilization when Christians, of course, due to their social status, began to accept the way of life of the Tatars.
This influence began in the sixteenth century, and because Christianity in the Crimea since that time begins to diminish.
Whatever it was, but the center of Christianity in the Crimea became Bakhchisaray assumption skete: other monasteries that due to persecution the Tatars, due to a lack of sympathy with the Christians faded. It was the heyday of the monastery.
In other sources I read that the persecution of Christians in Crimea allegedly greatly exaggerated ,and in fact, they lived there, if not in perfect harmony, it is quite peaceful. And more! - the religion of Muslims and Christians were as close as possible to each other.
And because the existence of the monastery of the assumption of the Tatar khans, not only did not infringe, but also greatly contributed to its development and preservation.
After the withdrawal of the Genoese from the Crimea, in ethnic terms, the Christians were a few Greeks and Armenians UNICEF(people of the ancient Armenian city of Ani on the territory nvneshnyaya Turkey).
Genoese is good to the Armenians and gave them many privileges.
After the arrival of the Tatars of course their situation has deteriorated dramatically.
However, it should be noted that almost three centuries! Christians and Muslims lived in the Crimea together.
Somehow assimilating and adjusting to each other.
After the Russian victory in the Russo-Turkish war of 1768-1774, under the terms of the Kuchuk-kaynrojistogo peace Treaty the Crimea was declared independent from Turkey.
The Crimean khanate was liquidated, and was followed by almost ten years of nominal independence of that state. Russia even contributed to the election of a loyal Khan Shahin-Giray!
The Tatars some kind of premonition did not want to elect Shahin-Giray, but the weapon of patrons forced them to elect him.
St. Petersburg relied on the transformation of the Crimean khanate in the "buffer" state between the two great powers - Russian and Ottoman empires. However, in practice it was much more difficult.
Here I found a rare discrepancy. There are at least three!the interpretation of the incident.
In one very common version, trying to gain a foothold on the Peninsula, Russia has decided to economically weaken the khanate, to suppress the industry of the Crimea and to destroy the revenues of the Khan,forcing him to feed from the hands of Russia.
The fact that in that period the Greeks and Armenians held in their hands almost the whole trade, agriculture and handicraft business in the Crimea, and collect taxes from them in return was the main source of income of the Crimean Khan.
The Tatars themselves as a kind of disdain this kind of work - they preferred military service to everything else.
Truly - beat the that strangers were afraid!
Another challenge was the colonization of the Novorossiysk territory. And could kill two birds with one stone.
On the other - Christians are so exhausted to live under the yoke of the khans of Tarski and tolerate their bullying and extortion that after the arrival of the Russian army asked the Empress Catherine to allow them resettlement from the Crimea.
At the third Russian tsars may have feared that the light will emerge some documents and books that represent the history of the XV-XVII centuries is not so, as I started to tell Romanov historians.
That there are too many still living witnesses of those times.
In the result, or that led to a government decision: vivistand the Christians of the Crimea to the southern lands of Russia!
Organization of departure of the Crimean Armenians and Greeks was entrusted to the energetic Suvorov. He establishes ties with the Armenian and Greek clergy, urges Armenians and Greeks that in the Crimea for them is the danger from the Turks and Tatars, promises of benefits that await migrants in Russia, giving them the guarantee of food supply and equipment on the road.
The spiritual and civil head of the Orthodox Christianity was Metropolitan Ignatius, and of the Armenian Gregorian — Archimandrite Peter Margos
Field Marshal Rumyantsev entered into relations with Metropolitan Ignatius and asked him to contribute to this venture.
And he was very active among the flock.
The news of the release of Christians dispersed throughout the Crimea; Tatars with extreme indignation talked about the exit and complained to Khan, who looks indifferently at the disposal of the Russians.
Crimean officers have several times petitioned the Khan to stop the output, but it is enmeshed in Russian politics, he answered them evasively.
For their part, Christians no less than the Tatars opposed the release.
Who wants to get away from their homes! And even dominion Mahometan no Scarecrow.
Used persuasion and bribery (and the money Russia is not spared).
These and many other measures of Ignatius and the Russian government managed to persuade the Christians to the output;
Christians believe in the purity of the intentions of Ignatius, he decided, finally, to propose to the Russian government the terms on which they can withdraw from the Crimea to Russia.
Crimean Christians put forward a number of conditions: the travel costs for the state account, payment of the cost of abandoned homes, the allocation of the settlement on the selection of displaced persons, the exemption from duties and taxes for 10 years, exemption from conscription, freedom of trade, Handicrafts and religion. The government of Catherine the conditions are accepted.
These conditions subsequently, in 1779 in another form appeared in the form of vsemilostivogo granted certificates, as if in response to the strong request of the Christians to deliver them from the yoke of the Tartars!
Here again, discrepancies - in some sources they say that the Tatars, learning about privileges and the privileges promised by Catherine, in a mass order began to accept Christianity , to leave the Crimea.
Others that on the contrary Christians began to abandon the faith in order to stay at home.
The total number of Christians like Greeks, Armenians, Georgians, Catholics, came from the Crimea both sexes 31,386 shower
By this action Russia has allocated 230 thousand rubles.
Got this case, Suvorov and Alexander took him on his custom : "good eye, speed and pressure"
Starting from the case in may, in September, he reported that all Christians are expelled, leaving only 288 people, and then only temporarily, until spring.
Despite the assistance of Russian authorities, the move was extremely difficult.
During the transition almost half of the settlers survived, and the head and the organizer of the resettlement Ignatius, the last Metropolitan Gotycki and Keiski, was forced to hide from his flock, and to write to Suvorov : "You got me warhole deep fire... I leave you to God's justice."
On arrival in Russia, the immigrants were in a difficult position.
Officials were in no hurry to execute the order for help .
When caring Christians all the monasteries including monastery of the assumption was purged to the ground. Then, like as not preserved any traces of old frescoes, inscriptions or paintings.
"ALL CAREFULLY DESTROYED, SHOT DOWN, ERASED".(I feel this is written by a supporter which version?:)
It was in 1778.
After the withdrawal of Christians from the Crimea, Uspenskiy monastery is in decline.
Here there is not one monk.
Remaining on the Peninsula, the Orthodox began to demand from the last Crimean Khan Shahin-Giray himself a priest.
With great difficulty, threatening to jail!, Shagin-Giray managed to persuade to serve at the Dormition monastery arrived in 1781, on the southern coast of the Greek priest Constantine of Spirandi.
It is the fact absolutely amazing.
Muslim! looking for an Orthodox priest! for Christians living within its territory.
In 1783 the Crimea became part of the Russian Romanov Empire.
And the assumption monastery was CLOSED AND REMAINED CLOSED until 1850. That is for neither more nor less than EIGHTY YEARS.
Some historians believe that this is the period for which any person who could have something to remember about the history of these places goes out of life.
In other words, the Romanovs are actually imposed on the Dormition monastery for a long period of QUARANTINE.
All this time the Church of the assumption monastery was used by Russian troops stationed under Bakhchisarai.
In the middle of the XIX century the Russian government, in an effort to show the deep roots of Christianity in Crimea, and, consequently, the legitimacy of Russia's right to possession of the Peninsula, and to attract the Orthodox population of the new starts renewal and restoration of Christian shrines.
After 80 YEARS, in may 1850 a decree of the Holy Synod, the Dormition monastery was reopened and began to live a regular monastic life .
Arrival at the monastery was moved the icon of the Dormition of the mother of God, received as a gift from the Kyiv-Pechersk Lavra.
It is clear that now none of its former inhabitants there was not.
No one came back, papers and books if they were hidden, but now all this was firmly forgotten. Or destroyed.
Or is it still to destroy and forget there was nothing?
There is no answer.
Christians came from the Crimea and issued with a commercial activity of the Peninsula, settling the discord between the Russian and Tatar, marked the beginning of the annexation of Crimea to Russia, which, of course, the Russians managed to good advantage.
Finally, the final change took placeLa in 1857: the Tatars did not escape the common fate that has befallen all the peoples of the Crimea, having, like others, many common troubles, they left their ashes and joined the solid mass of the Mohammedan world.
About 200 thousand Tatars, almost half of the total, went to Turkey.
The population was updated, and Christianity was again Goodstein on the Peninsula.
In 1921, the Dormition monastery was again closed and virtually destroyed.
Its restoration began only in the mid-90s of the XX century.
But that's another story.
And how many more such stories waiting for us in the future.
And who knows, 500 years later there are historians to interpret what is happening with us.