The Crimean Tatars: the Procrustean bed of history
"...The Greek and Gothic blood completely transform tatarstvo and get into it to the depth of cerebral convolutions. Tatars give the synthesis of all the diverse motley of the country's history.
Spacious and under cover of tolerant Islam flourishes own authentic culture of the Crimea.
The whole country from Metiska swamps to the South coast turns into one big garden: steppe blooming fruit trees, mountain, vineyards, harbour with boats, the city murmuring fountains and beat the sky white minarets.
In the tree-lined streets with stone and wooden arches in architecture and in decorations of houses, in the drawings of the clothes and embroidery of towels burns evening gilded Byzantine mosaics and acquire the radiance of tie Italian ornament...".
One of the starting points of the emergence of the ethnic group of Crimean Tatars should be considered as the emergence of the Crimean Yurt, and then the Crimean khanate.
Nomadic aristocracy of the Crimea took advantage of the weakening of the Golden Horde to create their own state.
A long struggle between feudal factions ended in 1443 with the victory of Haji Giray, who founded the virtually independent Crimean khanate, whose territory includes Crimea, the black sea steppes and the Taman Peninsula.
However, its independence was short-lived: after the capture of the Crimea by the Turks khanate became the vassal dependence on the Ottoman Empire.
In the khanate resulted in a rather stable social structure and administrative system headed by the Khan of the kind of Giray, whose appointment was approved by the Turkish Sultan.
The Peninsula was divided by the beyliks (principalities a Principality) large feudal birth: Shirinov, Mansurov, Argunov, Barinov.
At the head of beylik stood Bay the highest nobility of the khanate, who owned great herds and pastures.
The stupanew below were the leaders of the nomadic tribes (aimag) - Murza.
Bey and nobleman, to a certain extent limited the power of the Khan: the heads of the most powerful childbirth, Sofa (Council), without the sanction which Khan could not take any important step.
The economy of the Crimean Tatars was based primarily on nomadic pastoralism.
In cities made felts were developed leather, saddles, art processing stone, wood, metal.
Trade developed mainly in the coastal cities. Widely cultivated by the slave trade.
Until the early eighteenth century the khanate was militarily strong education, able to put up to 100 thousand soldiers, organized campaigns against other neighbors, usually ending with the capture of numerous prisoners.
A huge role in the formation of the Crimean Tatar people as an independent ethnic group played adopted under Khan Uzbek, Islam.
In the Crimean khanate, a certain development has been science, education, art.
In Bakhchisaray, Gezlev (Yevpatoriya) and other cities there was a higher spiritual school, where he studied the Koran, rhetoric, logic, philosophy, astronomy. During the khanate palaces, mosques and other buildings, some of which have survived to the present day.
Since the XV century to replace the city-fortresses of the early middle ages (and sometimes supplementing them) appear fortress city of the foothills and even the steppe: Bakhchisarai, AK-Mechet, Karasubazar, or-Kapu, Chersonese...
Of old fortresses only kirk-or Yes, pike has continued to play its former role.
The political center of the life of the Peninsula moved to Bakhchisarai - his heart.
The conquest of the Crimea in 1771 and the subsequent liquidation of the khanate and the final accession of the Peninsula to the Russian Empire in 1783, after the abdication of dignity from the Khan Shagin-Girei, has resulted in the mass migration of the Crimean population.
In 1778 the government of Catherine II relocates more than 31 thousand of Crimean Christians - Greeks and Armenians -in the Azov province.
Following this mass, the character gains the emigration of Tatars to Turkey.
The total number who emigrated in the late XVIII century the Crimean Tatars, according to various estimates, ranges from 80 thousand to 300 thousand people.
The government tried, especially at the beginning, not to interfere in religious Affairs.
For of the Crimea was appointed a special mufti, completely independent from the head of all Muslims of Russia. Tried to rely on the local nobility, which, as it did everywhere, many Crimean beys and murzas were assigned to the nobility.
There is evidence that Russian nobles were the ancestors of the people that will always be the pride of Russia: Gavrila Derzhavin (a descendant of Narbekovich), Leo Tolstoy (born Idrisovich), Fyodor Dostoevsky (a descendant of Celebia), Alexander Kuprin (born Tugan-Baranovsky), Anna Akhmatova (born Chagoda).
The policy of Russia, aimed at the speedy colonization of the region, included measures to fill the losses of the population, which led to a change in the ethnic composition of the Northern black sea coast.
Actively promoted migration to Russia, including the Crimea, immigrants from different provinces of Russia and other countries, carried out the resettlement of 70 thousand public and serfs.
As a result of these measures to the mid-nineteenth century the population of the Peninsula increased from 150 thousand to 315 thousand people.
A new shock to Crimean Tatars have been associated with the Eastern (Crimean) war of 1853-1856
The outcome has prompted many of them to the next relocation to Turkey, reached its apogee in 1860.
This has resulted in 687 villages were deserted completely, and the total number who left the Tauride province by the end of 1863 amounted to 192360 people. In 1865, despite the attempts of involvement in Crimea new settlers, the Peninsula was inhabited only by 194,4 thousand.
However, the construction of the railway to Simferopol Sevascopolia and the subsequent economic recovery contributed to the influx into the province of new residents.
By the beginning of XX century a number of the Crimean Tatars in Tauride province did not exceed 188 thousand.
The Crimean Tatar people had a fairly compact area of residence in the South of the Peninsula, which stretched from Balaklava in the West to Sudak in the East and from Karasubazar to Yalta.
Except for the southern coast, the Crimean Tatars compactly lived on tarhankutsky and Kerch peninsulas in the area of Yalta on the shore of the Sivash Gulf.
At the same time the beginning of XX century they almost completely left the Central steppe regions of the Crimea.
By the 20 th years of XX century formation of the Crimean Tatar ethnic group was on the stage of completion.
The composition consisted of three main sub-ethnic groups differing in language, culture and self:South coast Tatars (“yaly to Boyle”), mountain Tatars (“tat”, or “Tatler”), and finally steppe Tatars (“leg”, “nogalar”).
Tsarist regime in the Crimea conducted a rigid colonial policy, the unofficial slogan of which was “Crimea — without the Crimean Tatars”.
After the Civil war, in October 1921, the RSFSR was established Crimean Autonomous Soviet socialist Republic, which lasted until the deportation of the Crimean Tatars in 1944 (formally it was transformed into the Crimean region only in 1946).
But unlike the names of other autonomies, the name Crimean ASSR was in no way associated with the “titular” nation (Crimean Tatars).
Among 11 national regions of Crimea that existed in the 1930s, was 6 the Crimean Tatar areas.
In the Crimean Tatar language out of books and periodicals, worked as research centers and museums of national culture, develop folk art.
In 1936 in the Crimean ASSR was 386 Crimean Tatar schools.
However, since the end of the 1920s, a young Crimean Tatar intellectuals, including Communist party members, became the object of brutal repression in the framex combat so-called “national-democratic bias”.
During the 1930s in the Soviet national policy all the more strengthened the unitary-centralize trends, the vast national-cultural development of all peoples of the country.
This trend reached its peak in the war years of 1941-45, when it was realized the act of deportation of a number of peoples of the country .
The reason for the deportation of the Crimean Tatars was the political and military betrayal of its national elite and its clergy during the great Patriotic war.
The age-old hostility of the Crimean Tatar nobility to the Russian people and its political culture pushed her into the arms of Nazi Germany.
After the beginning of the great Patriotic war, many Crimean Tatars were drafted into the Red Army.
However, their service was short-lived.
Cost the front to get closer to the Crimea, as desertion and surrender among them took on a mass character.
It became apparent that the Crimean Tatars are waiting for the arrival of the German army and did not want to fight.
The Germans are using the current situation dropped from airplanes leaflets with promises to "finally solve the question of their independence" - of course, in the form of a protectorate of the German Empire.
From among the Tatars and surrendered in Ukraine and other fronts, it trained agents who were thrown to the Crimea to strengthen the anti-Soviet defeatist and Pro-fascist propaganda.
As a result of the red Army, manned by the Crimean Tatars, were unfit for action, and after the Germans came to the Peninsula the vast majority of personnel deserted.
In may 1944, this tragic fate of the Crimean Tatars and some other ethnic groups of Crimea (Armenians, Greeks, Bulgarians and even miraculously survived the Nazi genocide of the Roma, the Germans were deported from the Crimea in 1941)
The total number of deported Crimean Tatars is estimated at 238,5 youC. people.
During the deportation and in the first half year after it lost about 110 thousand people, i.e. almost half of all Crimean Tatar people.
The deportation was made in record time .
Early on the morning of 18 may 1944 began the operation for the expulsion of the Crimean Tatars, which was completed by 16 o'clock on may 20: 67 trains crowded Crimean Tatars wagons were sent East, to Central Asia and the Urals.
Directly the operation was headed by Deputy people's Commissar of internal Affairs of the USSR I. Serov and the people's Commissar of internal Affairs of the Uzbek SSR A. Kobulov. General guidance was provided by the people's Commissar of internal Affairs of the USSR Beria.
Residents of a remote fishing village on the Arabat spit of the Crimean Peninsula "forgot" to send along with all the people.
Afterthought after a while, without thinking, as a report on the successful completion of the operation has been submitted to senior management, they were loaded into barges and oboxious far out to sea, sank
The bulk of the Crimean Tatars were deported to Central Asian republics, mainly to Uzbekistan, where they were detained on discriminatory special settlement regime until 1956.
However, in subsequent decades, the Crimean Tatars were denied the right to return home.
Adopted in 1967, the Decree of the Presidium of the USSR Supreme Soviet “On citizens of Tatar nationality who lived in Crimea,” he proposed to consider them “rooted” in the current settlement, in other words, in exile.
Until very recently (up to 1987) does not officially admitted the existence of the Crimean Tatar people — was virtually absent at the national school, the press, cultural institutions.
It is noteworthy that , apparently, the guilt of the Crimean Tatars in a difficult time for the Soviet Union was so obvious for the leadership of the country , that even rehabilitated the right and left of the "victims of repression" Khrushchev did not dare to return to their "historic homeland".
Possожно possible in their bulk Tatars, testing genetic hostility to Russian handed down from generation to generation, welcomed Nazi Germany.
And flung herself into her arms quite deliberately.
Others believe that the people of the Crimean Tatar, as well as the Vainakh people, has become a hostage committed in wartime mass betrayal, for which he was severely forced to pay.
Deal with fascism turned to his Moloch of political repression.
It was actually exactly impossible to know.
Hatred gives birth only to hatred.
Truth and lies tightly intertwined in our minds.
And will rise above all this and understand the true nature of things can probably only Lord.
After independence, the Ukrainian government announced the Crimean Tatars that they can return home where they will be given Ukrainian citizenship and financial assistance.
Back about 250 thousand, and another 150 million could also return.
Many Russians feel animosity towards Tatars.
They accuse the Tatars that they want to conquer the earth, to open the way to Islamic fundamentalism and to declare an independent Crimean Tatar state.
When Tatars hold rallies and other events in memory of deportation, Russian I advise you not to leave the house.
In the last election in Ukraine, the Tatars voted for Yushchenko.
Yushchenko received votes Tatars promise to respect their rights on a par with the rest of the population.
The Crimea, who speaks and thinks in Russian, for 13 years, since 1991, quietly seething.
It is possible that the boiling point of this seething reaches after the announcement of the election results.
The future President of Ukraine, whoever he was, to untangle this snake-coil.
If you fail, honor and praise him.
If not Crimea, familiar to us from childhood form, the end.
The potential for the outbreak of bloodshed in Crimea is enormous, and eif it starts, it will be difficult not to let the violence outside the Peninsula.
The article used materials of the site "Crimean Tatars" - http://www.qirimtatar.org and some other alternative sources.