Tenderness and insidiousness of coastal dunes
Mileage: 95 km
Ferries — a very specific form of transport.
They do not travel as, for example, cruise liners.
They are primarily ideal for those who alone or together with his family set out to travel different countries by car, motorbike or Bicycle..
This is a working transport, ferrying passengers and goods on regular routes back and forth, often many times during the day.
The busiest crossing is located in the Baltic and Mediterranean seas, and between France and Britain across the English channel.
In the Baltic sea, the court are transported annually around 80 million passengers.
A small informative digression cool early Monday morning.
The more directly connected with the place where we Dmii went so early.
Ferries are different: conventional and high speed, passenger, cargo and multi-purpose, i.e., carrying both passengers and cargo.
Modern 12-deck cargo ferries can carry 7200 cars at the same time.
The shipping market is popular for two types of ferries — RoRo and RoPax.
For cargo ships of RоRо (Roll-on/Roll-off, eng. "to roll/to roll out") port cranes don't need any vehicles on their own calls directly from the pier into the vessel, where it is secured by special devices.
When unloading equipment itself travels.
This court has allowed to reduce time of loading/unloading.
The type RoPax ferries (Roll-on/Roll-off Passenger) carrying both cars and passengers.
The port in Varberg was operated by Stena Line.
Which performs transportation in many places of Northern Europe.
In addition conventional boats the company owns a high-speed hovercraft — catamaran, capable of speeds of up to 75-100 km/h.
The biggest catamaran Stena HSS, which installed a gas turbine and diesel engines manufactured by American company General Electric, can transport up to 1,500 passengers and 375 cars.
The widespread use of catamarans allowed the ferry industry to compete seriously with other modes of transport.
However, the joy was short-lived.
The rapid and steady rise in the cost of oil and all energy sources made fuel so expensive that speed, more powerful engines were to just eat all the profits.
As a result, companies had to abandon the operation of high-speed catamaran, the HSS Discovery because of higher fuel prices and lower airfares, which made work unprofitable catamaran
In order to stay on the market of ferry transportation, the company's management adopted a decision on the lengthening of ships, which is much cheaper than buying a new one.
The ferry Stena Hollandica was extended to the German port of Bremerhaven more than 30% — from 188 to 240 m, which made it the largest in the world in its class.
Now the Stena Hollandica can carry 900 people, not 440 as previously, the number of cabins increased from 192 to 398.
We were waiting for the wretched boat of the whole fleet - the Stena Nautica.
The distance to the Danish city of grenå was small and the line Varberg-grenå is not too popular.
I can't remember who noticed a large toilet located at the beach.
Maybe even me.
Dima taught me to accurately identify these booths, among other things, the landscape.
Not afraid to say that by the end of the trip my eyes were fixed on the water closet.
The time before departure was still and the next half hour was spent on the active use of this object.
Bought tickets with no problems.
And already at half past six of our bikes have taken their place in the hold of Nautica.
And we are located in the General passenger cabin.
The ferry sails to Denmark for about three hours through the Kattegat.
Certainly enough time to rest a little before the conquest of the Jutland Peninsula.
Dima something like sitting on the couch, immediately started demetriadou interrupted morning sleep.
And I polaraxis on the deck and realizing that there is nothing outstanding, was chosen.
Just over 60 years ago in these places had an operation to flood belonged to the Wehrmacht chemical weapons.
At the Potsdam conference all captured chemical weapons to be destroyed.
However, neither the victors nor the defeated Germany did not have the technology for safe destruction.
Soviet scientists had recommended to his government to flood discovered in East German weapons in the Atlantic ocean, 200 miles off the Faroe Islands.
To fulfill this plan failed: the USSR had no special means to transport toxic substances in the event of a storm.
Then the military offered to hold a burial in the Baltic sea.
In 1946 in the port of Wolgast to peenemünde near 42 railway trains with observance of all security measures was delivered 35 thousand tons of chemical weapons of the third Reich.
Winners Germany were men of their time.
They did not take into account the environmental consequences of their actions.
Meanwhile, the mustard gas, for example, saves a high toxicity for many decades.
To date, ships with toxic substances and chemical bombs have lain on the seabed about 60 years. The body of their rusted 70-80 percent.
Greatest hazard is the mustard gas, most of which in the case of the release will be on the seabed in the form of lumps poisonous jelly.
But the volume of the "Soviet" part of chemical weapons was only 12 percent of the total number of captured ammunition.
The other bombs, shells and mines buried along with the ships in the Skagerrak and Kattegat.
And the main threat to the coastal waters of Europe emanates from them.
Norwegian researchers found in the Skagerrak Strait, at a depth of 600-700 meters, 15 vessels with chemical munitions. Swedish scientists found another 9 transports chemical weapons, submerged at a depth of 200 meters.
German chemical bombs had a wall thickness of 6 mm artillery shells – the thickness of the housings between 8.9 to 13.1 mm.
The speed of their destruction in sea water is approximately 0.1 mm per year.
That's about what rubbish is lying on the bottom of the Strait and waiting in the wings.
Mustard, chloracetate, diphenylchlorarsine , Arsinoe oil, admit, cyanide salt, chloroarsine, canarsie and axillary points and cyclone gas that Nazis used in the death camps to destroy the prisoners.
If the Baltic States do not take anything that the sea and its inhabitants are waiting for a big damage.
And people will backfire.
Closer to the middle Strait ferry sails past the small island of Anholt, with a population of 160 people.
Eastern part of the island is known as the largest desert in Northern Europe.
This area is occupied by sand dunes, devoid of vegetation for centuries verebasaga to support the work of the lighthouse. Here is the largest Danish colony of seals.
After a couple of hours I pushed his partner to the top deck to watch the arrival process.
Always nice to look at the fine craftsmanship of local sailors with millimeter accuracy wciskamy so huge in the eye of a needle the pier.
The Kingdom of Denmark is the smallest of the Scandinavian countries. Since 1849 here was established a constitutional monarchy.
Denmark also includes two AVAutonomous oblast / region: Greenland and the Faroe Islands.
The average life expectancy here is 75 years for men and 80 for women.
The state spends 9% of their annual income on health care.
27111 euros per person is the average income of the population.
The unemployment rate does not exceed 5.7 percent.
The most powerful economic region of Denmark agriculture and energy.
The percentage of Danes who have received a full secondary education is 100%.
Annual subsidy in education accounted for 15.4% of GDP.
In General, there is something to envy.
The grenå was tecnam peripheral town.
Its center was very remote from the sea and therefore did not feel that he port.
The difference in the architectural style certainly catches the eye.
Puppet colored houses with tiled roofs - as if coming from the pen of Hans Christian Andersen.
The seal of peace and tranquility.
We unwittingly succumbed to the universal nastronie, sat in the gazebo on the banks of rivers flowing through the city , began to eat with the local ducks has divided our kefir-Baker Spartan meal.
Every time I look at the Scandinavian ducks and wonder what they are not frightened.
Our doves and sparrows, they cannot hold a candle to.
The first couple of hours of driving on Danish soil was nothing remarkable.
Fields wherever you look and rare trees.
The weather was great. Sunny and moderately warm.
After lunch so warmed up that it was a sin not to turn to the sea for a swim. And look at the famous dunes, which are richly the East coast of Denmark, it was interesting.
Dune — a sand hill formed by the wind.
The windward side of gently sloping dunes , downwind over steep and crumbling.
The height of the dunes can reach 150 meters, and the length is several kilometers.
If the solitary dune, its crest has a Crescent-shaped, and elongated edge call of roGami.
Overall, dune is perpendicular to the direction of the prevailing winds.
In the desert areas of single dunes merge, forming a huge chain called dunes.
The dunes of the Peninsula of Djursland on which we rode was not very vpechatlili. To the dunes they were far away.
But the Lystrup Strand beach with fine white sand was great.
Dima pleadingly looked at me and I understood him without words.
Two hours of complete relaxation and the first ablution (bathing is difficult to call painfully cold water) in Scandinavia.
To shake off the sweaty gear and feel for a moment an ordinary beach mattress.
Dima dreamily rolled her eyes. It turns out it was the first sea in his life .
Amazing how he survived.
In every person's life that happens for the first time.
First kiss, first love, first class, first salary.
But the older you get the less this first, and more, second, third and so on.
All have seen, all try.
The more valuable is suddenly out from nowhere the FIRST.
The most interesting thing about the dunes is their ability to move, the mechanism of which is simple — the wind carries the sand over the crest, and if this area is dominated by persistent strong winds, the dune starts to move.
The speed of the dunes is up to 20 meters per year in the coastal areas, the dune usually moves inland.
The movement of the dunes — not a harmless problem, they can cover roads, fields, pastures, even a small town.
In Denmark there are several places with drifting dunes. But they are all on the West coast.
Especially near Cape Skagen, the most Northern point of Denmark, where speculative joined the two seas -the Baltic and North.Near Skagen is half pogloshenie Sands, Churchs, from which there was one bell tower.
Sorry we never made it there.
About six in the evening with sighs of regret began to move in the future.
On the beautiful beach managed to forget the only when in the course of our movement has discovered a thicket of wild cherry.
Despite their savagery, the cherries were big and sweet.
Two overgrown lad enthusiastically filled his mouth fragrant anagami and ruby juice flowed from their lips and fingers.
Sometimes so little is needed for momentary happiness.
But life as we know Zebra.
And white stripe is always black, and sometimes even the place of the tail.
Desert road winding between villages, rare but not particularly close to the sea.
No cars met us along the way.
Embark on a night like closer to the water.
Looking for the congresses to the coast we drove into a dead end .
And another time tried to pass on the side of the field, but bogged down in the sand and the grass.
Our attempts all the time closely watched in the binoculars local.
But we only found out when getting back on the road met there silently blocked the path of the old man.
However the silence was the calm before the verbal diarrhea.
He abruptly took us off in traffic, something lopace in German.
All attempts by Dima to rid of him in English failed.
But leaving it as it is inconvenient, not realizing what we owe him.
Sometimes there was a feeling that the old man did not care if we understand it.
Perhaps he's just bored in the middle of nowhere for human faces and was pleased by any random listener.
Ten minutes later managed to come to a consensus.
Grandfather took us to his house where we met his colleague with the binoculars.
He was also German, but still a bit understand English.
As a result of all these long movements and fights have been able to understand - just simply they wantto be able to us.
To find the way. As seen as we wander in their field.
We thanked them for the advice to drive to the nearest campsite and a sigh of relief broke free from the grip navyazchivogo hospitality.
Camping is an extreme measure.
Leaving no attempts still to find a descent to the sea, we got to the place Ingerslev.
Where once the sand excavation Congress of black after Zebra caught us in full.
Dima called me and the dead voice said that broke the frame of the bike.
After gamma the rush of emotions subsided slightly and I looked at his bike more closely it turned out that all is not too bad.
Although not well.
From Dima's bike broke aluminum cock - small detail holding the rear derailleur to the frame.
Apparently, unable to withstand loads from driving on sand and loose earth broke the chain and zakoniv switch, broke it off from the frame.
The trouble was that providing every conceivable breakdown and took a bunch of spare parts, about the cock I had not thought of.
But even if I thought to take it was nowhere.
Bike Dima wore the popular chain of stores Trial sport in Russia, but barely known in the rest of the world proud name Corratec.
This automatically meant a complete lack of spare parts for this unit.
Typical business for the Russian. Sold and no grass to grow!
Luckily near the scene of the breakdown, found a quiet corner between an Apple orchard and the road hidden from prying eyes.
There and put the tent in the hope that we will not trample .
To think about problems on a tired head is not wanted.
The morning is always wiser than the evening