Start as always from afar. Every year in major cities around the world becomes more and more cars.
The growing prosperity of the people and they want to quickly and comfortably move about in space.
But unfortunately their desire, sooner or later comes up against the capacity limits of city streets.
Grow tubes, there are problems with Parking and planned when buying a car comfort, is transformed into the problem and a headache of their respective owners.
Uncontrolled motorization - the scourge of modern cities
What to do?
Totally logical argument, which usually all follow at first: build more roads!.
However, even in the middle of the twentieth century, the great American economist Anthony downs (Anthony Downs) noticed another paradox associated with traffic.
Let's imagine that we built a lot of good roads (reasoned downs); then the costs of driving decrease, then more people will buy cars, and those who have them – more to go on them;then the tube will come back again – as a result, these costs will return to the initial level only after some time and with a different number of machines.
Others are on the path of intelligent optimization traffic.
For example, in many cities there are Internet services - "traffic Jams", or reported on the radio.
However, a group of scientists, Hagen Jon (Hyejin Youn), Having Eong (Hawoong Jeong) and Makil Gastner (Michael Gastner) – asserts that the most serious delays create just such "advanced" drivers, continuously choosing the "optimal" strategy drive and then it changes.
This effect they called the cost of anarchy (The Price of Anarchy) is an inevitable price we have to pay for that on the road, each driver is responsible only for itself, and overall coordination and leadership are lacking.
It turns out that the moreth number of drivers made available information about congestion on road and the shortest access route, giving them the opportunity to choose the way by yourself, the less rapid is the movement as a whole.
This is a manifestation of well-known mathematical paradox of Breese.
Whatever it was trying to cater to the growing number of motorists sooner or later stumble upon the logical decision - to restrict the movement of cars in the city.
And it seemed reasonable.
Is a city designed for the people's livelihood, not breathing in exhaust fumes and not tecnalia fearfully in the corners.
In the end, it's beginning to understand even the motorists.
But still it happens among them in the last turn - because none of them wants to part with his means of prodvijenie or to pay for its operation a lot of money.
The cities where the power on time has imposed economic regulations on the movement and Parking of cars, feel great and do not suffocate the flow from the iron boxes.
Often the most effective tool are the progressive charging of fees for Parking depending on the distance from the center.
This path went like in Rome.
And as a result - in a big city, no traffic jams, despite its ancient narrow streets.
Alternative to cars
But there is little to limit the rights of cars - it is important to offer an alternative.
After all, people need to move around the city.
And there are only two ways - the clear organization of public transport and infrastructure for bicycles.
Today is used worldwide more than a billion bicycles (as vehicles on earth approximately 400 million), so the bike is the most common vehicle.
He became one due to its low cost, lightness, small size, and lack of fuel requirements and relative safety.
In 2005, according to a survey of public opinion in the UK, the bike was recognized as the greatest technological invention since 1800. For the bike voted by more respondents than all other inventions put together.
And it would be strange (I would even say discriminatory) not to allow the people as comfortable to travel on the most environmentally friendly and widespread transport in the world!
Why the Bicycle?
Always give three main reasons why it is so
SHOULD THE MOVEMENT OF PEOPLE ON BIKES !
Bikes take up much less space than cars.
On roads, Parking lots and garages takes huge amount of space in the city.
Imagine how would the city, upgraded for cyclists and pedestrians, when in place most of these car parks there would be parks and gardens
And how much cleaner the air was and your life longer
Even quiet and measured driving at a speed of 15-20 km/h saves you from 400-500 calories per hour.
Cyclists less susceptible to diseases of the cardiovascular system and respiratory system, males remain longer than men. Women gain more appetizing for their husbands form.
Leading Australian universities on behalf of the Ministry of Health of Australia announced figure, savings of budget funds for health through the active use by citizens of the country of bicycles.
Savings of state funds made up of 227.2 million dollars a year!!!
The government is BENEFICIAL to have healthy citizens!!!
The bike can save its owner a lot of money.
American Institute for economic researchof surveys calculated that the average motorist over the entire period of time when he drives the car spends it 240704 – 349968 dollars.
These prices are constantly increasing along with the increase in the cost of oil, auto-parts and the cars themselves.
I do not think that in Russia these costs much less.
The use of the Bicycle as personal transport, especially important for travel to a distance of 5-10 km.
At a speed of 15 km/h the cyclist overcomes the 5 km in 20 minutes, allowing you to reach places faster than public transportation and cheaper.
The performed calculations showed that the operation of the bike costs about a ruble per kilometer (and this is the most immodest estimation!)
The bike in Russia
But in our country, dealing with bikes is not too rosy
- In Russia the movement of cyclists allowed on roads
Cyclists are forbidden to ride on sidewalks and pedestrian paths.
The streets and roads movement bikes is permitted at a distance of not more than 1 m from the right edge of the roadway and only in one row.
- Cyclist should behave so that his intentions were clear to other traffic participants
For driving the vehicle out to another range, the intention to turn left or right, the cyclist is obliged to submit hand turn signals in the appropriate direction.
For signaling need to tear off the hand from the steering wheel, which is not always convenient, especially in terms of maneuver or braking(and that is significant contradicts those same rules against keeping one hand on the wheel)
The cyclist can not second to look back, the rearview mirror, though, and allows you to monitor traffic from behind, requires constant and close attention.
According to statistics, the cyclist on the road is subjected to a five times greater risk of being in a traffic praisedue to than the driver of the car.
The analysis of accidents involving cyclists shows that most of them occurs as a result of the apparent disregard for cyclists rules for maneuvering on the road, timely warning signals.
Besides trails cyclists are required to move around the bike path.
In the rules of the Road there are three sign concerning cyclists
- Bike path
Allowed to move only on bicycles and mopeds. The bike path can move as pedestrians (no sidewalks or pedestrian paths.)
- The intersection of the bike path
- Traffic on bicycles prohibited
Prohibited the movement of bicycles and mopeds
All these signs are such a thing as a Bike path.
The concept is - and Bicycle paths in Russia virtually none.
Whereas in Europe and the rest of the world apart from the cars the movement of cyclists rasprostranenie widely and assiduously cultivated.
Segregated cycle facilities
(Separated the traffic of cyclists)
Separated infrastructure for cyclists that roads, driveways, paths or marked lanes designed for cyclists and which in General case should not be motorized vehicles (although there is the movement of scooters and scooter)
So bike paths. Who needs them?
Who has ever been in civilized places, I have seen that in any city on a bike rides by many people. Different.
In some cities, such as Copenhagen, Amsterdam, Uppsala, sometimes it seems that ALL ride bikes. /> Why?
Because the bikeway is an opportunity to ride the bike any
Yes! Exactly! To anyone: child, old, athlete, glamour girl, pregnant woman, the homeless....
And not just someone who has sufficient training, experience and fortitude to fly in traffic.
Types of bikeways - world practice
There are three main types of organization of Bicycle lanes.
· Cycling trail (Cycle Way): a private road intended for the movement of cyclists only.
· Cycle path (Cycle Path): road, separated from the main highways(for example, premakeready the sidewalk) and dedicated to cyclists.
In turn, the Cycle Path can be combined with pedestrian sidewalks or separated from it bandsOh.
There are signs showing it.
· Bicycle lane (Cycle Lane): a portion of the road allocated by the markings or signs for cyclists
In addition, often the bike paths are highlighted (they are tinted in red or green in color) is additionally attracts the attention of drivers and makes them more careful.
Separated by curbs from roads.
The tracks are marked by different signs showing the direction and the nature of the motion, names of trails and distances to a particular point.
At the intersections in intersections pose special velocitator button - the green light which is lit just a few seconds, but enough that the cyclist had to cross the road.
Make a special melatonine or a ramp if the road is too busy.
Unlike American and European traffic from the Russian : if a cyclist when driving on the road is obliged to pass on the unregulated intersection, the cars, the priority is given to cyclist.
With priority this is so cultivated that some time ago in the EU was about to adopt a law on the fault of the motorist in any of stolknoveniya with the cyclist, even if technically was guilty of the latter.
Unfortunately there is no information has it.
But anyway - bike paths capture some of the places intended for cars.
And without a serious potaninia them out of the city will be difficult to organize a network of paths so that cyclists and motorists do not interfere with each other.
There are really fantastic projects such as Holopainen - a huge glass and plastic pipes laid above ground at a height of the third to fifth floors - where there will be year-round to ride people on bikes and not depend on the time of year.
In spite of calculations showing the economic efficiency of this valpolicela the probability of its creation still utopian. Even through Cycling cities in the world.
Some problems of operation of bikeways
Of course the creation of a network of Bicycle lanes in each particular case should be considered individually.
There is conflicting evidence about the relationship of the number of cyclists and the creation of Bicycle lanes.
So for example In the '80s and early' 90s the Netherlands spent 945 million dollars for the construction of Bicycle infrastructure, however, the number of cyclists has not practically changed.
When examined the results of the project in Delft (Delft Bicycle Route), the results showed that the use of bicycles did not increase, as well as safety on the road.
It seems that bike lanes don't add anything in favor of using bicycles and do not increase traffic safety.
Similar results gave the study in Denmark in 1989, which found that
the correlation between the creation of bike lanes and increasing the number of cyclists observed only in the case, even if restricted to car traffic
a different degree of experience traveling on Bicycle paths
The question arises, what if, the different age groups of users will use the bike paths
I believe that fast-moving Affairs experienced cyclist it is impossible to drive the highway for the road, designed for 12 year olds and beginners on holiday.
If this happens, it will be undermined any attempt to promote bike use.
problems with the contents of the tracks.
Moving vehicles produce a "sweeping" effect, cleaning out the roadway from the gravel and broken glass.
Since bike lanes and bike paths there are no cars, they accumulate more and more gravel and debris.
In addition, some of them are simpleabout the reach for the standard of road cleaning equipment.
The experience of European countries showed that cyclists simply refuse to use poorly supported infrastructure.
Opponents of bike lanes with the claim that there is no sense to Fund the construction of new tracks, if this will not increase funding to support and clearing old.
Similar problems arise where the observed abundant fall foliage, or get a lot of snow in the winter, because in the absence of any clearing bike paths quickly become useless.
Danish leadership, for example, defines three categories of cycle lanes: category a must be free of snow always
category In to clean daily
and tracks categories are cleaned less regularly in the winter.
In Copenhagen on clearing and maintaining bike lanes is spent annually about 1.72 million dollars
A German Federal law requires local authorities were deprived of the cycle track of their status in case of discrepancy of requirements.
In Russia this is especially true given the General laziness and carelessness.
As well as General dirt on the roads running down from the lawn or damage the wheels of cars.
And yet, bikeways are only part of the Bicycle infrastructure.
If they cause a massive increase in the number of people on bicycles, it will take the creation of Bicycle Parking facilities.
But that's a topic for another discussion.
As you can see is not enough to build bikeways.
To maintain them is not easier than a car.
What do we have?
In Moscow for a long time debated on the topic of bike lanes and the like even going to build them.
However, recently received a report from city authorities , to develop Cycling in the capital, as is done in European cities, is not yet possible.
To thatto whom is the conclusion reached by the participants of parliamentary hearings in the Moscow city Duma.
In Moscow there is no system for placement of bike lanes, and will significantly reduce road capacity and hence would infringe on the interests of motorists.
Therefore, it was decided to sacrifice the interests of cyclists, especially because they are a minority.
Besides, he added the pavement, too hard, and it turns out, cyclists are not perfect.
In the Cycling city of Russia St. Petersburg too, there are no bike lanes.
More precisely, there is ONE bike path.
Made it stupid and Papageno, but this is the second question, the main thing that it is.
And someone rides, and even someone included it in their routes of cobertella to different places.
Although in General it is a thing in itself and to make a conclusion on how to increase the number of cyclists and that in General in the city changed with the advent of the SINGLE track is pointless.
In large cities needs to be developed network of cycle paths, then it will be useful and meaningful.
For example in Helsinki including suburbs is home to one million people, the area, too, with suburbs, about 900 sq. km.
So in Helsinki the total length of cycle paths 2,000 km!!! And with five million inhabitants St. Petersburg 1.5 km away.