ВелоСтатьи

Eaters Of The Brain

Cyclists on the planet ticks

Begin, as always, from afar.
Mankind fondly believes that the planet belongs to him.
What would a priori allow people to modify for themselves the nature and use it as subsaharanafrica.
However this misconception leads to an adequate response.
Nature begins to resist.
And sometimes explicitly tell people that they're not alone and one day it may find them unnecessary.

One only has to look closely for example on just one microcosm around us - the planet ticks.
Every year there are more. The distribution of the increase.
As the number of deadly diseases carried by ticks.
Ticks are getting closer to the man. Not uncommon now to pick up the tick in a city Park or square.
The ring of creatures in the chitinous shell is compressed around the person.

If interested that categorization can safely skip.

MITES (Acarina), a detachment of small arachnids, which includes about 20 thousand species.

Armoured mites (Oribatidae) – the most extensive group of soil mites, the most abundant in forest soils and litter.
Their gnawing they use the chelicerae for chewing decaying plant residues with abundant microflora.
Carry in their bodies tapeworms affecting livestock.




Granary mites (Acaridae), also called flour, or of bread, – small animals from chewing chelicerae. Live in soil and rotting plant debris, as well as in storage of agricultural products, sometimes causing spoilage of grain, flour and cereals.
People who work with grain, they are able to call the shots of the chelicerae severe skin irritation and respiratory symptoms characteristic of allergic reactions.
Fortunately the granary mite quickly leaves the man as we feed on tissuesECOMIX.

Itch mites (Sarcoptidae) parasitic on mammals. Sudan scabies (Sarcoptes Scabiei) causes scabies in humans.
Female gnaws moves in the Horny layer of skin and lays eggs there. This is accompanied by severe itching and inflammation.

Mites of krasnoselki (Trombiculidae) in adulthood – predators, and larval stage parasites.
They affect the skin of many terrestrial vertebrates (reptiles, birds, mammals), making it moves.
Under the influence of their saliva tissue rasizada (this fluid serves as food for mites), and there is strong inflammation, but the blood of krasnoselki not suck.
Some representatives of this genus are transmitted to humans from rodents and insectivores tsutsugamushi disease (Japanese river fever).

Water mites. Members of the family Hydrachnidae are widely distributed in fresh waters and Halacaridae live mainly in the seas. Water mites are mainly free-living predators, attacking small invertebrates, but are known parasites of various animals.

Gamasoidea mites. Most representatives of this group are predators, feeding on small invertebrates, but many are parasites of terrestrial vertebrates.
The most complete study of the chicken mite (Dermanissus gallinae) is a serious pest of poultry farms. During the day these mites hide in the crevices of chicken coops, and by night, attacking the chickens and suck their blood. When mass destruction and the bird may die from anemia.
Avian parasites of this genus is close rat mite (Allodermanissus sanguineus), which can pass from rodents to man vozbuditelei rickettsias.


And finally, ticks– bloodsucking parasites of terrestrial vertebrates (reptiles, birds, mammals).
This is the most major members of the order, reaching a length of 2.5 cm (when nasosetsya blood), but usually not more than 1.3, see
They represent the greatest danger in our area.
Especially for those who love to roam the fields and forests in early summer.
Including cyclists.
Because are bernacchini many dangerous diseases.
In humans, these include Rocky mountain spotted fever, Lyme disease, tick typhus, tick-borne encephalitis, tularemia.

Despite the large number of types of ticks, the real epidemiological significance only two species: Ixodes Persulcatus (taiga tick) in Asian and in several regions of the European part, Ixodes Ricinus (European forest tick) - in the European part.

Ixodes tick is a self-propelled container for blood is provided with four pairs of legs and a proboscis-a needle Head with cutting chelicerae preclean to the body is very mobile.
During meals it deep into the skin and anchors there a special phototoweb outgrowth – hypostoma – guided back teeth.


Fully engorged parasite weighs 80-120 times more than before meals.
However, so much blood can contain only females that need a huge amount of nutrients for egg laying.

The time spent on nutrition, from different genders differently: females are hanging on the master to 6 days, males are pay nutrition a few hours.
But, sated, they are in no hurry to leave the host and go in search of suck females, which immediately, without interrupting their meal, mate.
If necessary, pliers may be a long time in nature for months, but years — to do altogether without food due to its immobility and very efficient use of body reserves

 

And the eggs hatch into asexual larvae with three pairs of feet.
The larva immediately begins to search for the victim and, after eating and Perlina turns into a nymph — a creature bigger (1.5 mm) and eight-legged, but still asexual.
The nymphs, after wintering in the litter, go in search of food.
If they are lucky, they will go for a second winter well-fed, and next spring will meet for adult ticks.

Larvae attack mainly on small rodents, lizards, songbirds.
Nymphs spread their appetites for chipmunks, hedgehogs, rabbits, and the main victims are adult mites — ungulates ,large predators and of course people.
But you can find adult ticks on wood mice, and a larva on the cow.
Thus, the developmental cycle of the tick takes at least three warm season (during which the tick feeds only three times), and can be stretched and 4-5 years.


 
The adult tick is rarely in his life more than a dozen meters.
Their walking food he waits, sitting on a blade of grass or twig anywhere near permanent trails, roadsides.
The two rear pairs of legs holding on for support, two front (on their last segments are located the organs of smell) are stretched forward and to the sides like arms.
If the past is the right animal (or rides a bike), the tick grabs his front legs and then begins to select a place for a bite.


Stories about "jumping from the trees" ticks - it is a common misconception, partly based on the way they crawl up the body and stick on the head or neck.

But there is also the so-called moose flies (Hippobosca equina) — blood-sucking insects of the order Diptera, whose flat hard body and spreading fur feet make them look like ticks.
In addition they are hitting a person or animal, drop their wings, so they do not interfere to get in the wool or hair.
Actually some bloodsuckers are irrelevant to others.
And most importantly — the moose flies live no virus encephalitis or the causative agents of other tick-borne diseases.

Before you stick the tick seeks out a place sweeter and softer.
On this he spent up to an hour.
The slow tick is some good - as it can be detected long before the bite.
Scary to think what it would be if mites were moving like mosquitoes or ants and stung without much hesitation.

The tick bite absolutely bezboleznennyy.
When it bites it injects an anesthetic into the wound a substance damaging the walls of blood vessels.
Moreover, the proboscis of the tick is firmly cemented in the wound and get stuck because the adversary is quite difficult.

At the time of the bite simultaneously with the saliva of the tick the wound gets and viruses.
There is a perception that if you quickly remove the tick, before he began to deeply whitethese in the flesh, the infection can be avoided.
Unfortunately it is not.
Got infected with tick-borne encephalitis virus in tick-pathogen able to multiply in many tissues and organs, and very often it is present in the salivary glands.
The aforementioned "cement the secret" can contain up to half of the total amount of virus contained in the tick.
So even if you remove the tick almost immediately after he will stick, then you can still get it, in this case the source of infection will be the "cement" are left in the skin.

It is also proved that the infection is transmitted by the bite and males.
Short and painless bite of a male may not be noticed, especially when the woods are full of mosquitoes and midges.
And it's even more dangerous than the bite of the female, which sooner or later discover the body.
Likely quite frequent cases of tick-borne encephalitis, when patients deny a tick bite, associated with the attack of the males.

In our area ticks are mostly perenoskikami ENCEPHALITIS - a viral infection affecting the Central and peripheral nervous system.
Infection occurs through tick bites or through digestive and gastrointestinal tract when taken raw milk goats and cows infected with tick-borne encephalitis.

The incubation period of tick-borne encephalitis lasts an average of 7-14 days with fluctuations from one day to 30 days.
The disease often begins acutely, with chills and increase in body temperature to 38-40°C.
The fever lasts from 2 to 10 days.
Appear malaise, a sharp headache, nausea and vomiting, fatigue,
fatigue, sleep disturbances. Pains in the whole body and limbs. Typical muscle aches, especially the large muscle groups, which usually occur in the future, paresis and paralysis.
Usually characterized by different degrees of stupor (stupor).

The disease is tick-borne encephalitis in Europe takes a milder form than in the Eastern part of the range of tick-borne encephalitis.
The severity of the disease depends on the ability of the virus to penetrate the blood brain barrier, hitting or not hitting the brain.

Towards the West of the continent of tick-borne encephalitis is less common but more Lyme disease(tick-borne borreliosis).
Horseradish radish is not sweeter I can tell you.
And although the disease is less dangerous, but also very bad.
This is an infectious disease caused by spirochetes , have the tendency to chronic and recurrent course, and the predominant skin lesions, nervous system, musculoskeletal system and heart.

Borrelii with the saliva of the tick into the skin and within a few days, reproduce, and then they spread to other areas of the skin and internal organs (heart, brain, joints, etc.).
Borrelii for a long time (years) can be stored in the human body, causing chronic and relapsing course of the disease.
The development process bOlesno for borreliosis is similar to development of syphilis.

Forecast favorable for life, but the possible disability due to damage to the nervous system and joints.

Treatment of Lyme disease is usually antibiotics tetracycline.
Often recommend doxyciclin

Doxycycline - antibiotic of tetracycline group.
Widely known for every drug, "tetracycline" is a natural substance formed in nature, a special kind of fungus.
The active part of the molecule of tetracycline is allocated and modificeres using complicated chemical synthesis, the result is a fundamentally new biologically active substance, a new antimicrobial drug, doxycycline.
Its therapeutic activity is much larger than the grandparent (natural tetracycline), chemical synthesis allows to achieve high purity of the drug and the appearance of his new and highly useful properties.
As a consequence, new possibilities of use and a significant decrease in negative reactions.
First, significantly expanding the spectrum of action, and secondly, significantly less risk of allergic reactions, thirdly, significantly accelerates the absorption from the gastrointestinal tract and excretion is slowed.
The result is a therapeutic concentration of doxycycline in the blood after a single dose lasts from 18 to 24 hours!
And this is very important because it allows you to take the drug only 1 time per day.

A characteristic feature of infection with Lyme disease is a round red spot at the site of the bite - erythema migrans, with time uvelichivaetsya in size and takes the form of a ring.

Ticks are every year closer to the man.
It is for them a hassle-free food.
Around industrial centers with a large concentration of people ticks mutate.
Become newaspioncinema to insecticides.
And worst of all, carry already several viruses at the same time.

Well all caught up with horror enough.
Question: Who is to blame - it seems to have decided
It remains to understand What to do:)

 

 

How to remove a tick

 

In the field on the nature of the tick will have to extract yourself.

And as quickly as possible.
So I have no reason a common misconception that it is necessary to drip oil on the tick and wait until he crawls out or suffocate.
Not crawl, he does not suffocate in any foreseeable future.
Don't do this! This is a harmful myth!
You will only lose precious time waiting for a tick from a purely human reaction.
Well, there are attacks of breathlessness, panic or diarrhea from terror.

The stigmata (stigma) are located on the side of the body, behind the fourth pair of legs and surrounded by a plate (peritreme)
Tick for a long time can do without air, closing peritreme as dampers.
The virus, meanwhile, will continue to be in your blood.
The longer the tick is on the body, the more virus you will get the same.

The ONLY CORRECT ACTION is to pull the tick IMMEDIATELY.
This should be done either through the thread or at least tweezers.
And it is better by means of special devices.
Do not pull out the tick with your fingers.
Not obsess about them.
They are too thick compared to mites and clumsy and will not replace the more subtle tools.

Tweezers is bad because you can not calculate their forces and too hard to squeeze the body of the tick, thereby squeezing out his guts along with the virus in the blood.

If you were so careless and not bothered buying a truly convenient means of extracting the tick, the thread will help you.

5" />Strong string, as close as possible to the proboscis of a tick tied in a knot, the tick is removed, pulling it up.
Sudden movements are unacceptable.
Removal of the tick should be made with caution, without squeezing the side of his body, since it is possible to extrude the contents of the tick along with pathogens in the wound.
It is important not to break the tick when you remove the remaining in the skin may cause inflammation and suppuration.
With the disengagement of the head of the tick infection process may continue, as in the salivary glands and ducts there is a significant concentration of the virus.

VERY IMPORTANT!
REMEMBER that the proboscis of the tick, that is the part that it inserts into the skin, have small "spikes" pointing to the back of the tick.
If you pull the tick on its axis, the "thorns" will satinata, stronger, will dig into the skin, which may facilitate the separation of the proboscis from the body of the tick and leave it in the skin.
The tick is removed in a circular motion (or viventium), not traction
The spikes of the proboscis will roll to the axis of rotation and the head of the tick will come off.


If when removing the tick came off his head, which has the appearance of black points, the suction is wiped with cotton or gauze moistened with alcohol, and then remove the head with a sterile needle (pre-calcined in the fire).
The way You remove a normal pain.



Unfortunately, with the help of a thread it is difficult to provide rotational motion.
Was specially designed fixture which will maximally facilitate and speed up your work.

French TICK TWISTER - Tick screwdriver

From my point of view a very convenient thing.
Two plastic hooks of different sizes with a slot.
Big hook for big ticks.
Small - for small.
These hooks allow you to quickly and painlessly removing ticks embedded in the skin of man and animals without the use of auxiliary substances (acaricidal drugs, oil, air, thread, etc.) without leaving the proboscis of the tick in the skin without compressing the abdomen of the tick (and thus reducing the risk of infection),under any Statute of limitations bite, no pain (no risk to pinch skin or hair).

 

This instrument was built in France, a vet practitioner who has developed a form of device in the form of a fork, carefully used the angle between the fork and handle, handle diameter, with special surface treatment and choice of plastic.
Interesting fact - often inventions first made for animals, and then find the use and people.

Method of application:
- Choose the size of the device (forks) relative to the size of the tick.
- To enter the fork by grabbing the tick from the side as long as the tick is not supported by the fork.
- A little to gently lift the fork and turn like a screwdriver. Mite is separated in two or three turns.

The tick is removed in a circular motion (or viventium), not traction, despite the similarity of the shape of the fork with the shape of the dog.



To buy such a thing is possible for example via the Internet
http://www.healthsib.com/eshop/

Handle-lasso the Russian-Swedish company "OMNIX"
OOO "Omniks", 194044, Saint-Petersburg, B. Sampsonievsky 11, Tel./Fax (812) 542-01-01, www.omnix.ru

The principle of operation is quite the same.
Grip the tick with thread and pulling out the rotating movement.

- Open the loop by clicking on the green button and put it on the tick as close to skin > - Release button and position the device perpendicular to the surface.
- Press the green tip to the skin and turn the device around its axis once
- Remove the tick by moving the device vertically upward (from the skin), disinfect the bite.

If you want to remove the tick is very small in size (figure 4):
- press the green tip to the skin, as close to the tick
- a light press on the green button to release the lasso so that it covers tick
- smoothly release the button, position the device perpendicular to the surface, turn it once around its axis
- remove the tick by moving the device vertically upward (from the skin), disinfect the bite.

With the included plastic cones to store the removed tick.

 

How to protect from tick bite

The wisest way to protect is to prevent the bite.
To do this, the way is often (approximately every hour) to inspect yourself and your companions.
Preferably undressing naked and carefully inspecting all the clothes.
But not always this is possible and stressful.
There will protective sprays and aerosols.

All the available funds, depending on the active substances are divided into 3 groups.

1) Repellent – repel ticks.

The first group includes products that contain DEET(DEET) for example"DEFI-the Taiga", "Off! The extreme" "the Gaul-RET", etc.
The advantage of the deterrents is that they are used for protection against midges, dealing not only on clothes but also on the skin. More dangerous for ticks drugs applied to the skin is impossible.
The protective properties of clothing are stored up to five days.
Rain, wind, heat and sweat reducing the duration of the protective means.

2) Acaricide kills mites

alt="" width="123" />Drugs with Alfatsipermetrin poison gas nervously-paralytic action on ticks. For example: "Prefix", "Gardeks spray extreme" , "Fumitoks-articles, Permanon" . Applied to clothing outside the person.
Avoid contact with skin.
These compounds when applied in one way or another on clothing create areas that mites do not tend to avoid, but after contact they quickly fall away with the clothing as a result of failure of nerve conduction.
This manifests itself in 5 minutes.
It was observed that before deleterious for mites, drugs with toxic Alfatsipermetrin increase the activity of the mites, and though this period is small, the risk of a bite while it increases the tick can penetrate to the body at the stage of excitement, when he sticks fast.
Therefore, for these drugs recommended the continuous processing of clothing.

Drugs with the active ingredient permethrin to kill ticks faster.

Best reviews of the aerosol in this group Gardex Extreme
Active substance: alfatsipermetrin of 0.2%, permethrin 0.15 percent.
Clothing retains its protective properties during 15 days (without washing and when storing in a plastic bag)

3) Insecticide-repellent – drugs of combined action, that is killing and frightening off ticks.

Drugs of the third group combine the properties of two of the above - they contain 2 active ingredients DEET and alphacypermethrin, thanks to their effectiveness when used correctly is near 100 percent.

It's aerosols "KRA-rap" (alfatsipermetrin 0.18 percent, DEET 15%) and "Moskitol-articles"(alfatsipermetrin of 0.2% DEET 7%.)

Reviews about the latest are also very positive.
Clothing retains its protective properties during 15 days (without washing and when storing in a plastic bag)


OtherGoy method of protection - a preventive stimulation of the human immune system.
By vaccination of the vaccine.
As a result, if a tick bites will become infected, probability of getting sick will be minimal.

For the prevention of tick-borne encephalitis used inactivated vaccines, i.e. vaccines containing killed viruses.
Registered in our country and use domestic products -

1) ANTIVIR
2) CULTURAL CONCENTRATED PURIFIED INACTIVATED VACCINE

and foreign

3) FSME-IMMUN INJECT
4) ENCEPUR


Domestic vaccine used for vaccination of children under 4 years of age.
Vaccinations for kids starting from 1 year, used children's dose of ENCEPUR and FSME-IMMUN INJECT.

Vaccination tick-borne encephalitis for the last two consists of 3 doses, which are introduced according to the scheme 0-1(3)-9(12) months.
After vaccination, the immunity lasts for 3 years.

Opinions about vaccination are very controversial.
Many believe that the harm from them for the body much more than protection.
And much better to carry out the treatment immediately after a tick bite, rather than proactively.

The vaccine is not Holy water.
This immuno-active product containing formalin inactivated viruses, causing certain changes in the body - desirable, with a view to create a vaccinated immunity to infection, and unwanted, that is adverse reactions.
But there is an opposite opinion.

This argument recalls the war between big-endian and pointed tips in the book about Gulliver.

Deputy chief physician of the Center of hygiene and epidemiology of Sverdlovsk oblast Victor Romanenko considers it necessary to vaccinate against tick-borne encephalitis 100% of the inhabitants of the region.
"I think you need to be deported from Sverdlovsk region to those who have not been vaccinated against encephalitis. Not allowed in AFrick those who have not been vaccinated against yellow fever," - said V. Romanenko.
In addition, he urged people to abandon immunoglobulin in the prevention of encephalitis, because "one injury".
"This is a foreign protein produced from the blood of another person. To guarantee that there are no infections of hepatitis b or HIV, can only be 98%. Enter the immunoglobulin is a risk," said the doctor.

However, an injection of immunoglobulin is currently the main method of treatment after the bite of an infected tick.

Immunoglobulins are an integral part of proteins.
They contain protective antibodies able to neutralize the pathogenic action of various microorganisms - including the tick-borne encephalitis virus.
Immunoglobulins have a devastating effect on viruses, bacteria, spirochetes and protozoa
Typically, the Immunoglobulin obtained from the blood of people who recover from certain zabolevaniem and animals (often horses), which specially introduced the relevant vaccine.

For the treatment of patients Immunoglobulins are advised to enter as early as possible from the onset of illness (preferably in the first 2 days).
Immunoglobulin shorten the duration of the febrile period, reduce the severity of the disease and the occurrence of possible complications.
The period of action of immunoglobulin is limited to a maximum of four weeks.
If repeated his introduction, the body begins to develop immunity against the foreign protein, immunoglobulin becomes useless.

The protective effect of immunoglobulin is considered to be much weaker vaccinations.
If you don't have the tick for analysis, the prophylactic administration of immunoglobulin is a paid service which is very expensive.
You need to enter under the scheme of 1 ml per 10 kg of weight.
If the price of the product in 1000 RUB per one ampoule on average a person weighing 80 kg needs 8000 RUB.
The price of bite:)
It is now commonly acknowledged that the drug has a highpoints cost and lack of effectiveness.
Immunoglobulin administration does not prevent development of the disease due to the low titer of the contained specific antibodies.
In addition, intramuscular or intravenous application of the drug of blood, which is a tick immunoglobulin, is fraught with the danger of infections, transmitted by parenteral route, such as HIV, hepatitis, freonovye disease, cytomegalovirus, etc., as well as allergic reactions to the introduction of the blood protein preparations, inhibition or prolongation of the synthesis of antibodies.

Immunoglobulin requires strict storage conditions (+2 — +8C) that in field conditions cannot be met.

Because the ONLY way (not including vaccination) for travelers in General and cyclists in particular, remains the drug yodanthipirina

From application instructions:
The yodanthipirina has anti-inflammatory, and immunostimulant interferonogenic properties.
Stabilizes biological membranes and prevents penetration of the virus into the cell. Is active inducer of alpha and beta interferon, stimulates cellular and humoral immunity.
Active against tick-borne encephalitis virus, hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome, vesicular stomatitis, influenza and parainfluenza.

Dosage:
For the treatment of tick-borne encephalitis, or after a tick bite in the first two days - 0.3 g 3 times a day; in the third and fourth days, and 0.2 g 3 times a day; in the next 5 days - 0.1 g 3 times a day.

The drug can be used prophylactically.
Although the forum of the website of the company LLC "Science technology Medicine" the representatives write that without special needs to take is not worth it.

Price per pack in Ufa, in area 300r. There are 50 tablets in the course.

The solution is fairly new andtatistiky is not enough on its use.
Saw the results of a study of the clinical efficacy of course positive.
Read and negative reviews of various doctors.

But alternatives to this drug for people who are away from civilization, no.
And if dignity, it is actually not as impressive as trying to present to the producers even in the role of a placebo it will fit perfectly.
After all, the man believes that he will help.
And faith works miracles.
And to raise some immunity to it later:)


In article used materials from open sources of the Internet, news and enciklopediceskij sites.

Forewarned is forearmed.
Be alert and healthy!